DNB Radiation Oncology: Admissions, Medical Colleges, fees, eligibility criteria details here

DNB Radiation
Oncology or Diplomate of National Board in Radiation Oncology also known as DNB
in Radiation Oncology is a Postgraduate level course for doctors in India
that is done by them after completion of their MBBS. The duration of this
postgraduate course is 3 years, and it focuses on the study of various concepts related
to the field of treatment of life-threatening diseases like cancer, and blood disorders by means of ionizing radiation.

The course is a full-time course pursued at various accredited
institutes/hospitals across the country. Some of the top accredited
institutes/hospitals offering this course are- Action Cancer hospital-
Delhi, Apex Hospital- Varanasi, Apollo Hospital- Bangalore and more.

Admission to this course is done through the NEET PG Entrance exam
conducted by the National Board of Examinations, followed by counselling based
on the scores of the exam that is conducted by DGHS/MCC/State
Authorities.

The
fee for pursuing DNB (Radiation Oncology) from accredited institutes/hospitals
is Rs.1,25,000 to Rs. 3,15,000 per year.

After completion of their respective course, doctors can either join the
job market or pursue a super-specialization course where DNB Radiation
Oncology is a feeder qualification. Candidates can take reputed jobs at
positions as Senior residents, Junior Consultants, Consultants etc. with an
approximate salary range of Rs. 8 Lakh to Rs. 24 Lakh per year.

DNB is
equivalent to MD/MS/DM/MCh degrees awarded respectively in medical and surgical
super specialties. The list of recognized qualifications awarded
by the Board in various broad and super specialties as approved by the
Government of India are included in the first schedule of the Indian Medical
Council Act, 1956.

The Diplomate
of National Board in broad-specialty qualifications and super specialty
qualifications when granted in a medical institution with the attached hospital
or in a hospital with the strength of five hundred or more beds, by the
National Board of Examinations, shall be equivalent in all respects to the
corresponding postgraduate qualification and the super-specialty qualification
granted under the Act, but in all other cases, senior residency in a medical
college for an additional period of one year shall be required for such
qualification to be equivalent for the purposes of teaching also.

What is DNB in Radiation Oncology?

Diplomate of National Board in Radiation
Oncology, also known as DNB (Radiation Oncology) or DNB in Radiation Oncology is a three-year postgraduate
programme that candidates can pursue after completing MBBS.

Radiation Oncology is the branch of
medical science dealing with the non-surgical management of cancers by providing treatment by means of ionizing radiation

The National
Board of Examinations (NBE) has released a curriculum for DNB in Radiation
Oncology.

The curriculum governs the education and training of DNB in Radiation Oncology.

PG education intends to create
specialists who can contribute to high-quality health care and advances in
science through research and training.

The required training done by a
postgraduate specialist in the field of Radiation
Oncology would help the specialist recognize the community’s health needs.
The student should be competent to handle medical problems effectively and
should be aware of the recent advances in their speciality.

The candidate should be a highly
competent specialist in Radiation
Oncology possessing a broad range of skills
that will enable her/him to practice Radiation
Oncology independently. The PG candidate should also acquire the basic
skills in the teaching medical/para-medical students.

The candidate is also expected to
know the principles of research methodology and modes of the consulting
library. The candidate should regularly attend conferences, workshops, and CMEs
to upgrade her/ his knowledge.

Course Highlights

Here are some of the course highlights of DNB in Radiation Oncology

Name of Course

DNB in Radiation Oncology

Level

Postgraduate

Duration of Course

Three years

Course Mode

Full Time

Minimum Academic Requirement

MBBS degree obtained from any
college/university recognized by the Medical Council of India (now NMC)

Admission Process / Entrance Process /
Entrance Modalities

Entrance Exam (NEET PG)

Course Fees

 Rs.1,25,000 to Rs. 3,15,000 per year

Average Salary

Rs. 8 Lakh to Rs. 24 Lakh per year

Eligibility Criteria

The eligibility criteria for DNB in Radiation Oncology are defined
as the set of rules or minimum prerequisites that aspirants must meet in order
to be eligible for admission, which includes:

Candidates must be in possession of an
undergraduate MBBS degree from any college/university recognized by the Medical
Council of India (MCI) now NMC.

Candidates should have done a compulsory rotating internship of one year
in a teaching institution or other institution which is recognized by the
Medical Council of India (MCI) now NMC.

The candidate must have obtained permanent registration of any State
Medical Council to be eligible for admission.

The
medical college’s recognition cut-off dates for the MBBS Degree courses and
compulsory rotatory Internship shall be as prescribed by the Medical Council of
India (now NMC).

Candidates
who have passed the final examination, leading to the award of a Post Graduate
Degree (MD/MS) from an Indian University, which is duly recognized as per
provisions of the National Medical Commission (NMC) Act, 2019 and the first
schedule of the IMC Act can apply for the DNB Final examination in the same
broad specialty.

Admission
Process

The admission process contains a few steps to
be followed in order by the candidates for admission to DNB in Radiation Oncology. Candidates can view the complete
admission process for DNB in Radiation
Oncology mentioned below:

  • The NEET PG or National Eligibility Entrance Test for Post
    Graduate is a national-level master’s level examination conducted by the NBE
    for admission to MD/MS/PG Diploma Courses.
  • The requirement of
    eligibility criteria for participation in counselling towards PG seat allotment
    conducted by the concerned counselling authority shall be in lieu of the Post
    Graduate Medical Education Regulations (as per the latest amendment) notified
    by the MCI (now NMC) with prior approval of MoHFW.

S.No.

Category

Eligibility Criteria

1.

General

50th Percentile

2.

SC/ST/OBC (Including PWD of SC/ST/OBC)

40th Percentile

3.

UR PWD

45th Percentile

Fees Structure

The fee structure for DNB in Radiation Oncology varies from
accredited institute/hospital to hospital. The fee is generally less for
Government Institutes and more for private institutes. The average fee structure for DNB in Radiation Oncology is Rs.1,25,000 to Rs. 3,15,000 per year.

Colleges offering DNB in Radiation Oncology

Various
accredited institutes/hospitals across India offer courses for pursuing DNB (Radiation Oncology).

As per the
National Board of Examinations website, the following accredited
institutes/hospitals are offering DNB (Radiation
Oncology) courses for the academic year 2022-23.

Hospital/Institute

Specialty

No. of Accredited Seat(s)
(Broad/Super/Fellowship)

Action Cancer hospital
H-2/FC-34, A-4 Paschim Vihar, New Delhi
Delhi-110063

Radiation Oncology

1

Apex Hospital
N7/2A-5D , DLW, Hydil Road, Varanasi
Uttar Pradesh-221004

Radiation Oncology

1

Apollo Hospital
154/11, Opp. I.I.M., Bannerghatta Road, Bangalore
Karnataka-560076

Radiation Oncology

2

Apollo Hospital
Room No. 306, Office of the Director of Medical Education
Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad
Telangana-500033

Radiation Oncology

3

Apollo Hospital International
Plot No. 1A, GIDC Estate Bhat, District – Gandhi Nagar
Gujarat-382428

Radiation Oncology

2

Apollo Multispecialty Hospitals Limited
58, Canal Circular Road, Kolkata
West Bengal-700054

Radiation Oncology

2

Apollo Specialty Hospital
Padma Complex, 320 Mount Road, Chennai
Tamil Nadu-35

Radiation Oncology

2

Army Hospital (R and R)
Delhi Cantt, New Delhi
Delhi-110010

Radiation Oncology

2

Batra Hospital and Medical Research Centre
1, Tuglakabad Institutional Area, M.B. Road,
Delhi-110062

Radiation Oncology

1

Bhagwan Mahavir Cancer Hospital and Research Centre
Jawahar Lal Nehru Marg, Jaipur
Rajasthan-302017

Radiation Oncology

2

Bharat Cancer Hospital and Research Institute
Surat – Bardoli Road, Saroli, Surat
Gujarat-395010

Radiation Oncology

1

Capitol Hospital
C/O Capitol Hospital Jalandhar Pathankot Road Nh 44 Near Reru
Chowk Jal
Punjab-144001

Radiation Oncology

1

Caritas Hospital
Thellakom P. O Kottayam
Kerala-686630

Radiation Oncology

1

Chalmeda Anand Rao Institute of Medical Sciences (CAIMS)
Cancer Hospital and Research Institute
Bommakal Village, Karimnagar Mandal and District
Telangana-505001

Radiation Oncology

1

Dharamshila Narayana Superspeciality Hospital
Dharamshila Marg, Vasundara Enclave,
Delhi-110096

Radiation Oncology

1

Dr. B L Kapur Memorial Hospital
Pusa Road, New Delhi
Delhi-110005

Radiation Oncology

1

Fortis Memorial Research Institute
Sector-44, Opposite HUDA CITY centre Metro Station, Gurgaon,
Haryana-122002

Radiation Oncology

2

G Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital
Post Box No. 6327, Nethaji Road, Pappanaickenpalayam,
Coimbatore
Tamil Nadu-641037

Radiation Oncology

2

Global Hospital and Health City
(A unit of Ravindernath GE Medical Associate Pvt Ltd) No-439,
Cheran Nagar, Perumbakkam, Chennai
Tamil Nadu-600100

Radiation Oncology

1

HCG Cancer Centre
Holy cross road, IC colony, off Borivali-Dahisar link road,
Borivali West, Mumbai
Maharashtra-400092

Radiation Oncology

2

HCG Cancer Centre,
Sola Science City Road, Nr. Sola Bridge, S G Highway,
Ahmedabad – 380006
Gujarat-380006

Radiation Oncology

2

HCG Manavata Cancer Centre
A Unit of HCG Manavata Oncology LLP, Near Mylan Circle, Mumbai
Naka, Nashik
Maharashtra-422002

Radiation Oncology

1

HealthCare Global Specialty Hospital
(Formerly Bangalore Institute of Oncology) Deans Office #8, P.
Kalinga Rao Road, Sampangiram Nagar, Bangalore
Karnataka-560027

Radiation Oncology

3

Indo-American Cancer Institute and Research Centre
Road No.14, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad
Telangana-500034

Radiation Oncology

2

Indraprastha Apollo Hospital
Delhi-Mathura Road, Sarita Vihar, New Delhi
Delhi-110076

Radiation Oncology

1

Jawahar Lal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Res. Centre
Idgah Hills, Bhopal
Madhya Pradesh-462001

Radiation Oncology

1

Jupiter Hospital
Eastern Express Highway, Thane (West)
Maharashtra-400601

Radiation Oncology

1

Kailash Cancer Hospital and Research Centre
Muni Seva Ashram, At- Goraj, Ta.- Vaghodia, Dist- Vadodara-
Gujarat-391760

Radiation Oncology

1

Kamla Nehru Memorial Hospital
1, Hashimpur Road, Allahabad
Uttar Pradesh-211002

Radiation Oncology

2

Kerala Institute of Medical Sciences
P B No.1, Anayara P O, Trivandrum
Kerala-695029

Radiation Oncology

1

KMC Hospital and Research Centre
187, Baghpat Road, Meerut
Uttar Pradesh-250002

Radiation Oncology

1

Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital and Medical Research
Institute
Achyutrao Patwardhan Marg, 4 Bunglows, Andheri (W), Mumbai
Maharashtra-400053

Radiation Oncology

1

Mahatma Gandhi Cancer Hospital and Research Institute
Plot No. 1, Sector – 7, MVP Colony, Visakhapatnam
Andhra Pradesh-530017

Radiation Oncology

2

Mahavir Cancer Sansthan and Research Centre
Phulwari Sharif, PATNA
Bihar-801505

Radiation Oncology

4

Malabar Cancer Centre
Moozhikkara P O, Kodiyeri, Thalassery, Kannur
Kerala-670103

Radiation Oncology

1

Max Super Specialty Hospital
(Formerly- Pushpanjali Crosslay Hospital) W-3, Sector-1,
Vaishali, Ghaziabad
Uttar Pradesh-201012

Radiation Oncology

2

Max Super Specialty Hospital
1,2, Press Enclave Road, Saket,
Delhi-110017

Radiation Oncology

2

Medanta The Medicity
Sector-38, Gurgaon
Haryana-122001

Radiation Oncology

2

Mohandai Oswal Hospital
GT Road, Sherpur By-Pass, Ludhiana
Punjab-141009

Radiation Oncology

1

Narayana Superspecialty Hospital
(A Unit of MMHRL) 120/1 Andul Road, Howrah
West Bengal-711103

Radiation Oncology

1

Omega Hospital
MLA Colony, Road No. 12, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad
Telangana-500034

Radiation Oncology

2

Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre
Sec-5, Rohini, New Delhi
Delhi-110085

Radiation Oncology

3

Ruby General Hospital
Kasba, Golpark, E M Byapass, Kolkata
West Bengal-700107

Radiation Oncology

2

Ruby Hall Clinic
40 Sassoon Road Pune
Maharashtra-411001

Radiation Oncology

1

Sadhu Vaswani Missions Medical Complex
(earlier known as Inlaks and Budhrani Hospital) 7-9, Koregaon
Park, Pune
Maharashtra-411001

Radiation Oncology

1

Saroj Gupta Cancer Centre Welfare Home and Research Institute
M.G.Road, Thakurpurkar, KOLKATA
West Bengal-700063

Radiation Oncology

2

Shanmuga Hospital and Salem Cancer Institute
24, Saradha College Road, Salem
Tamil Nadu-636007

Radiation Oncology

2

Sir Hurkisondas Nurrotumdas Hospital and Research Centre
Raja Ram Mohan Roy Road, Gordhan Bapa Chowk, Prathana Samaj,
Mumbai
Maharashtra-40004

Radiation Oncology

1

Sri Shankara Cancer Hospital and Research centre
Shankara Math Premises, 1st cross, Shankarapuram,
Basavanagudi, Bangalore
Karnataka-560004

Radiation Oncology

2

Tamil Nadu Government Multi Superspeciality Hospital
Anna Salai,Chennai
Tamil Nadu-600007

Radiation Oncology

2

Tata Medical Center
14 Major Arterial Road (E-W), Newtown, Rajarhat, Kolkata
West Bengal-700160

Radiation Oncology

2

Yashoda Hospital
Behind Hari Hara Kala Bhawan, S.P. Road, Secunderabad
Telangana-500003

Radiation Oncology

1

Yashoda Super Speciality Hospital
Raj Bhavan Road, Somajiguda, Hyderabad
Telangana-500082

Radiation Oncology

3

Syllabus

A DNB
in Radiation Oncology is a three years specialization course which
provides training in the stream of Radiation
Oncology.

The
course content for DNB in Radiation Oncology is given in the NBE Curriculum released by National Board of Examinations, which can
be assessed through the link mentioned below:

DNB Radiation Oncology in India: Check out NBE released curriculum

1. Structure:

a. Basic Sciences

i. anatomy and Physiology as related to Radiation oncology

ii. Cancer Pathology

iii. Radiation Physics

iv. Radiobiology

v. Statistical basis for planning & interpretation of clinical trials.

b. Clinical Radiotherapy

c. Clinical Cancer Chemotherapy

d. Other disciplines allied to Radiotherapy and Oncology

e. Preventive and community oncology

f. Palliative care

g. Training

h. Administration

2. Basic Sciences

a. Anatomy

• Knowledge of surface anatomy pertaining to Oncology

• Detailed knowledge of the all organs

• Detailed knowledge of the lymphatic system of all organs-regions

• Practical familiarity with the radiographic appearance of important regions (living anatomy)

• Cross sectional anatomy

b. Cell Biology

• The cell: structure and function

• Relative radio sensitivity of nucleus and cytoplasm

• Mitosis, cell cycle

• Principles of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis

• Radiation effects on DNA, strand breakage and repair

• Common molecular biology techniques.

• The cell: structure and function

• Relative radio sensitivity of nucleus and cytoplasm

• Mitosis, cell cycle

• Principles of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis

• Radiation effects on DNA, strand breakage and repair

• Common molecular biology techniques.

c. Tumor Physiology

• Angiogenesis

• Microenvironment

• Hypoxia and Re oxygenation

• Cell proliferation in tumor that is cell cycle and cell cycle control

• Proliferation and cell death

• Tumor heterogeneity metastasis

d. Pathology

• Definitions of & distinction between different types of growth disorders (i.e; distinction between hyperplasia, hypertrophy, regeneration, malformations and neoplasia.

• Malignant transformation:

 Initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis.

 Mode of origin–monoclonal, polyclonal, unifocal, multifocal structural

and

 Functional changes in cellular components.

• Etiology of cancer including genetic predisposition & congenital syndromes chromosomal abnormalities & hereditary tumors, Protooncogenes, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes & viruses in the causation of malignancy.

• Multifactorial causation including Nutritional aspects in cancer causation and prevention

e. Environmental Causes of Cancer:

• Biological – protozoal, bacterial, viral

• Chemical – classes of carcinogenic chemicals, smoking

• Physical – trauma, irradiation (UV rays, other electromagnetic radiation including, X- rays and gamma rays and particulate radiation)

• Common occupational cancers & experimental tumors in animals relationship to human mutagenicity.

• Etiology, mechanisms of carcinogenesis, known types of carcinogens & their effects upon the cell.

• The relative importance of different factors in the causation and spread of human cancer including :

 Rate of tumor growth

 Methods of measurement

 Factors affecting growth rate

 Mechanisms of spread

 Local effects of tumors

 Local & systemic reactions to tumors

 Effects of therapy on tumors & normal tissues

• Criteria for tumor diagnosis macroscopic, histological & cytological uses & value of biopsy material.

• Apoptosis and cell signaling pathways

• Mechanisms of spread

• Local effects of tumors

• Local & systemic reactions to tumors

• Effects of therapy on tumors & normal tissues

• Tumor Markers

• Tumor Immunology

• Cytogenetics, Molecular Pathology and Immunohistochemistry

• Classification of tumors – histogenic, histological, behavioral & immunological nomenclature – solid tumors, lymphoproliferative disorders

• Structure & organization of tumors- vascular supply, stroma etc.

• Systems of grading Endocrine aspects of malignancy:

• Production of hormones by tumors, effect of hormones on tumors,

• Paracrine effects of tumors Paraneoplastic syndromes.

• Tumor Immunology including organization & development of the immune system and the role response in disease,

• cellular basis of immunity & measurement of immune function,

• Graft versus host reaction, tumor immunity,

• Tolerance, enhancement, Immune surveillance hypothesis

• Immunological markers in diagnosis & monitoring, the I ILA systems & molecular biology for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

f. Principle of Oncology

• Genetic pre disposition

• Congenital syndrome

• Chromosomal abnormalities

• Hereditary tumors

• Protooncogenes, Oncogenes And Tumor Suppressor genes

• Multifactorial causation

• Nutritional aspects in cancer causation and prevention.

• Environmental causes of cancer

• Biological – protozoal, bacterial, viral

• Chemical – Classes of carcinogenic chemicals, smoking

• Physical – trauma, irradiation (UV rays, other electromagnetic radiation including X rays and Gamma rays and particulate radiations)

• Occupational cancers.

g. Radiation Physics/Radiation Oncology Physics

• The aim of this subject is to provide the Oncologist with the knowledge of physics required in clinical practice.

• An understanding of the principles of planning & carrying out treatment is a necessary prerequisite & will be enhanced by the study of this subject.

• A familiarity with the physics of electromagnetic radiation and atomic structure will be required.

• With respect to their implications for accurate dose delivery in clinical radiation therapy, applicability, limitations, advantages & disadvantages of the various devices & techniques should receive particular attention.

• Candidates should be encouraged to observe & gain practical experience with the equipment & techniques used in radiotherapy in clinical oncology departments.

h. Structure of Matter:

• Constituents of atoms,

• Atomic and mass numbers,

• Atomic and mass energy units,

• Electron shells,

• Atomic energy levels,

• Nuclear forces,

• Nuclear energy levels,

• Electromagnetic radiation,

• Electromagnetic spectrum,

• Energy quantization,

• Relationship between Wavelength,

• Frequency

• Energy Nuclear Transformations: Natural and artificial radioactivity, Decay constant, Activity, Physical, Biological and Effective half-lives, Mean life, Decay processes, Radioactive series,

i. Radioactive equilibrium Production of X-rays:

• The X-ray tube,

• Physics of X-ray production,

• Continuous spectrum,

• Characteristic spectrum,

• Efficiency of X-ray production,

• Distribution of X-rays in space,

• Specifications of beam quality,

• Measurement of beam quality,

j. Filters and filtration Interaction of radiation with matter:

• Attenuation, Scattering,

• Absorption,

• Transmission,

• Attenuation coefficient,

• Half Value Layer (HVL),

• Energy transfer,

• Absorption and their coefficients.

• Photoelectric effect,

• Compton Effect, Pair production Relative importance of different attenuation processes at various photon energies Electron interactions with matter

k. Energy loss mechanisms –

• Collisional losses,

• Radioactive losses,

• Ionization,

• Excitation,

• Heat production,

• Delta rays,

• Polarization effects,

• Scattering,

• Stopping power

• Absorbed dose,

• Secondary electrons.

l. Interactions of charged particles:

• Ionization vs. Energy,

• Stopping Power,

• Linear Energy Transfer (LET),

• Bragg curve,

• Definition of particle range.

m. Measurement of radiation: Radiation Detectors: Gas, Solid – state, Scintillation, Thermo luminescence, Visual Imaging (Film, Fluorescent screens), and their examples. Exposure, Dose, Kerma: Definitions, Units (Old, New), Inter- relationships between units, Variation with energy and material.

n. Measurements of exposure (Free air chamber, Thimble chamber), Calibration of therapy beams:

• Concepts,

• Phantoms,

• Protocols (TG 21, IAEA TRS- 398, TG 51)

• Dose determinants in practice (brief outline only, details not required)

o. Radiotherapy Equipment:

• Grenz rays,

• Contact,

• Superficial, Orthovoltage or Deep therapy,

• Super voltage,

• Megavoltage therapy

p. Therapy and diagnostic X-ray units – comparison. Filters, factors affecting output. Co-60 units:

• Comprehensive description of the unit,

• Safety mechanisms,

q. Source capsule Linear accelerators,

Source capsule Linear accelerators:

• History,

• Development,

• Detailed description of modern Dual mode linear accelerator,

• Linac head and its constituents,

• Safety mechanisms,

• Computer controlled linacs,

• Record and Verify systems.

r. Relative merits and demerits of Co-60 and linac units.

s. Simulators:

• Need for them,

• Detailed description of a typical unit,

• Simulator CT. Dose distributions,

• Beam modifications and shaping in Teletherapy beams.

t. Characteristics of photon beams:

• Quality of beams,

• Difference between MV and MeV,

• Primary and scattered radiation.

u. Percentage depth dose, Tissue-Air Ratio, Scatter Air Ratio, Tissue-Phantom Ratio, Tissue Maximum Ratio, Scatter Maximum Ratio, Back Scatter Factor, Peak Scatter Factor, Off-Axis Ratio, Variation of these parameters with depth,

filed size, source-skin distance, beam quality or energy, beam flattening filter, target material. Central axis depth dose profiles for various energies

v. Equivalent square concept, Surface dose (entrance and exit), Skin sparing effect, Output factors.

w. Practical applications:

• Co-60 calculations (SSD, and SAD technique),

• Accelerator calculations (SSD, and SAD technique)

• Beam profiles Isodose curves,

• Charts,

• Flatness,

• Symmetry,

• Penumbra (Geometric, Transmission, and Physical),

x. Field size definition Body inhomogenities

• Effects of patient contour,

• Bone, Lung cavities,

• Prosthesis on dose distribution

• Dose within bone / lung cavities,

• Interface effects, Electronic disequilibrium

y. Wedge filters and their use, Wedge angle, Wedge Factors, Wedge systems (External, In built Universal, Dynamic / Virtual), Wedge Isodose curves

z. Other beams modifying and shaping devices:

• Methods of compensation for patient contour variation and / or tissue

inhomogeniety– Bolus,

• Buildup material,

• Compensators,

• Merits, and Demerits of beam modifying devices

aa. Shielding of dose limiting tissue:

• Non-divergent and divergent beam block,

• Independent jaws,

• Multileaf collimators,

• Merits and Demerits

3. Principles of Treatment Planning

a. Treatment planning for photon beams: ICRU 50 an NCAP terminologies. Determination of body contour and localization: Plain film, Fluoroscopy, CT, MRI, Ultrasonography, PET CT

b. Simulator based. Methods of correction for beam’s oblique incidence, and body Inhomogeneties

c. SSD technique and isocentric (SAD) technique: Descriptions and advantages of SAD technique

d. Combination of fields:

• Methods of field addition,

• Parallel opposed fields,

• Patient thickness vs. Dose uniformity for different energies in a parallel opposed setup,

• Multiple fields (3 fields, 4 field box and other techniques).

• Examples of above arrangements of fields are SSD and SAD techniques, Integral Dose. Wedge field technique, Rotation Therapy (Arc, and Skip), Tangential fields. Beam balancing by weighting. Total and hemi-body irradiation. Field junctions. Limitations of manual planning.

e. Description of a treatment planning system (TPS):

• 2D and 3D TPS

• Beam data input,

• Patient data input (simple contour, CT, MR data, Advantages of transfer through media)

• Input devices Digitizer, floppies, DAT devices, Magneto-optical disks, direct link with CT, MR)

f. Beam selection and placement, Beam selection and placement, Beam’s Eye View (BEV),

g. Dose calculation and display (Point dose, Isodose curves, Isodose surfaces, Color wash).

h. Plan optimization

i. Plan evaluation tools:

• Dose volume Histograms (Cumulative and Differential),

• Hard copy output,

• Storage and retrieval of plans.

j. Alignment and Immobilization:

• External and internal reference marks,

• Importance of Immobilization methods (Plaster of Paris casts, Perspex casts, bite block, shells, head rests, neck roll, Alpha-Cradles. Thermoplastic materials, polyurethane foams

• Methods of beam marks, and front / back pointers Treatment execution: Light field, Cross hair, ODIs, Scales in treatment machines. Treatment verification: Port films,

k. Electronic portal imaging devices,Invivo patient dosimetry (TLD, diode detectors, MOSFET, Film, etc) Changes in patient position, target volume , and critical volume during course of treatment. Electron Beam

l. Therapy Production of electron beams:

• Production using accelerators

• Characteristics of electrons

• Surface dose,

• percentage depth dose,

• beam profiles,

• Isodose curves and charts,

• Flatness and Symmetry.

• Beam collimation,

m. variation of percentage depth dose and output with filed size, and SSD,photon contamination

• Energy spectrum, Energy specifications, variation of mean energy with depth.

• Suitability of measuring instruments for electron beam dosimetry Treatment planning:

n. Energy and field size choice,

o. air gaps, and obliquity,

p. Tissue in- homogeneity: lung, bone, airfilled cavitites. Field junctions (with either electron or photon beam). External and internal shielding. Arc therapy, Use of bolus in electron beam.

q. Total Skin Electron Irradiation, Intraoperative Radiation therapy.

r. Physical Principles of Brachytherapy:

• Properties of an ideal brachytherapy source,

• Sources used in brachytherapy: Ra-226, Cs-137, Ir-192, Au-198, Co-60, I125,I- 131 ,P-32,Sr-90, Yt-90, Ru-106, Ta-182 and other new radionuclides.

• Therapy with Unsealed sources

• Complete physical properties of all the sealed and unsealed sources.

• Radiation hazards

• Source construction including filtration, comparative advantages of these radionuclides

s. Historical background.

t. Radiation and Dose units:

• Activity used, Exposure, Absorbed dose, mg-hr, curie, milli-curie destroyed, milligram Radium equivalent, Roentgen, Rad, Gray.

• Source strength specification, Brachytherapy Dose calibrator

• Technique: Preloaded, after loading (manual and remote),

• Merits and Demerits.

• Surface, Interstitial, Intracavitary,Intraluminal, Intravascular, Systemic brachytherapy, Low, Medium, High and Pulsed Dose Rates.

u. Remote after loading machines.

v. Dosage Systems: Manchester System, Paris System Treatment Planning: Patient selection, Volume specification, Geometry of implant, Number, Strength

a. and Distribution of radioactive sources, Source localization, Dose calculation, Dose rate specification, Record keeping ICRU 38.

w. Radiation Safety: Planning of brachytherapy facility, Rooms and equipment, Storage and `Movement control, Source inventory, Disposal, Regulatory requirements Beta-ray brachytherapy including methods of use, inspection, storage and transport of sources, dose distribution

x. Unsealed Radionuclides: Concepts of uptake, distribution and elimination, Activities used in clinical practice, Estimation of dose to target tissues, and critical organs, Procedures for administering radionuclide to patients

y. Quality Assurance in radiotherapy (QART) Overview of QART:

• Need for quality system in Radiotherapy,

• Quality system: Definition and practical advantages, Construction, Development and implementation of a Quality system

• Quality Assurance of simulator/CTsimulator Co-60, Linear Accelerator Acceptance testing of Simulator, TPS, Co-60, Linear Accelerator

z. Radiation Protection and Regulatory Aspects: Statutory Framework

• Principles underlying International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendations, ICRP and National radiation protection

 i.e; Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) standards. Effective dose limits (ICRP and AERB)

• Protection mechanisms: Time, Distance and Shielding.

• Permissible doses for Radiation workers and Public including Pregnant Women.

aa. Concept of “As low as Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA) Personnel and Area

bb. Monitoring; Need for personnel monitoring, Principles of film badge, TLD badge used for personnel monitoring. Pocket dosimeter

cc. Need for area monitoring, Gamma Zone monitors, Survey meters Regulatory aspects and Calliberation.

dd.Procedural steps for installation and commissioning of a new radiotherapy facility (Tele therapy and Brachytherapy). Approval of Standing Committee on Radiotherapy Development Program.

ee. Type approval of unit. Site plan, Layout of installation / Associated facility: Primary, Secondary barriers, leakage and scattered radiation. Regulatory requirement in procurement of teletherapy / brachytherapy source(s).

ff. Construction of building, qualified staff, Procurement of instruments, and accessories, installation of unit and performance tests. Calibration of unit, AERB/DRP approval for clinical commissioning of the unit.

gg. Other regulatory requirements: Regulatory consent, NOCs, Periodical reports to AERB and Radiological Physics and Advisory Division (RP & AD) , Bhaba Atomic Research Centre (BARC)

hh. Conformal radiotherapy (CRT): Principles, Advantages over conventional methods, Essential requirements for conformal radiotherapy.

ii. Various methods of CRT:

• With customized field shaping using conventional coplanar beams.

• Multiple non-coplanar MLC beams conforming to target shape.

• Stereo tactic radiotherapy

jj. Principle of inverse planning and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy(IMRT)

• Using 3D compensator

• Static IMRT (Step and Shoot technique)

• Dynamic IMRT (sliding window technique)

• Dynamic arc IMRT

• Micro –MLC

• Tomotherapy methods

• Time gated (4D) radiotherapy

• Merits and demerits of IMR

4. Stereo tactic irradiation methods:

a. Physics Principles,

b. Techniques,

c. Description of units

d. 1.Gamma Knife

e. Linac based

f. 3.Cyber Knife

g. 4.Tomotherapy

h. Stereo tactic Radio surgery (SRS) and Stereo tactic Radiotherapy (SRT), Stereo -tactic body Radio therapy (SBRT).

i. Merits and demerits

j. Networking in radiotherapy: Networking of planning and treatment units in radiotherapy department including Picture Archival Communication System (PACS), Advantages.

k. Patient Data Management, Oncology information systems(OIS)

5. High LET Radiation

Comparison and contrast with low LET radiation. Neutron source (including 252 Cf) and Boron Capture Neutron Therapy (outline only). Advantages and disadvantages of neutrons, RBE values, hazards of low dose and low energy neutrons, RBE values, hazards of low dose and low energy neutron, use in radiotherapy, combination with low LET, current clinical results. Other high LET particles: protons, high energy heavy nuclei, application to radiotherapy, current clinical results.

6. RADIOBIOLOGY AND APPLIED RADIOBIOLOGY

• Introduction to Radiation Biology

• Radiation interaction with matter

• Types of radiation, excitation and ionization.

• Radiation chemistry: direct and indirect effects, free radicals, oxygen effect and free radical scavengers, LET and RBE theory, dual action theory, intracellular repair, general knowledge of repair models.

• Introduction to factors influencing radiation response.

• Physical factors: dose, dose quality, dose rate, temperature Chemical factors: Oxygen, radio sensitizers, radio protectors

• Biological factors: type of organism, cell type and stage, cell density and configuration, age, sex.

• Host factors: Partial or whole body exposure.

• Relevance of radiation biology to radiotherapy

• Interaction of ionizing radiation on mammalian cells.

• The cell: structure and function; relative radio sensitivity of nucleus and cytoplasm, mitosis, cell cycle, principles of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis,

• radiation effects on DNA, strand breakage and repair, common molecular biology techniques.

• Cell injury by radiation: damage to cell organelle like chromatids, chromosomes; interphase death, apoptosis, mitotic death, micronucleus induction, SLD, PLD

• Oxygen effect: mechanism, hypoxia, OER, reoxygenation in tumors, significance in radiotherapy.

• Dose rate

• Brachytherapy sources including sealed and unsealed sources.

• Radiobiology of low, high dose rate & pulsed brachytherapy, hyper fractionation, significance in radiotherapy.

• Effects of low LET and high LET radiation on cell.

• Cell survival curves.

• Effect of sensitizing and protective agent.

• Dose modifying factors and their determination. Variation of response with growth and the progression of cell through the phases of cell cycle. Physical factors influencing cell survival

• Relative biological effectiveness (RBE); its definition and determination, dependence upon linear energy transfer, dose, dose rate and fractionation.

• Hyperthermic and photodynamic injury

• Biological hazards of Radiation; Stochastic and Non Stochastic effects or radiation. Radiation effects on the embryo and the foetus

• Life shortening.

• Leukemogenesis and carcinogenesis, genetic and somatic hazards for exposed individuals and population.

• Biological basis of radiological protection.

• Organ radiosensitivity and radioresponsiveness, Concept of therapeutic index.

• Acute effects of Radiation, Concept of mean lethal dose, Radiation Syndromes: Bone Marrow, Gastrointestinal system, Central Nervous System, Cutaneous Suppression of immune System: mechanism, Consequences.

• Total Body irradiation Biological dosimetry: Blood counts, BM mitotic index. Chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes

• Radiation accidents: typical examples Radiation effects on major organs/tissues

• Acute & late effects on all normal organs & tissues including connective tissue, bone marrow, bones, gonads, eye, skin, lung, heart, central nervous system tissues, peripheral nerves, oesophagus, intestine, kidney, liver & thyroid with special reference to treatment –induced sequelae after doses employed in radiotherapy.

• Normal tissue tolerances

• Late effects of radiation (somatic)

• Sterility, cataracts and cancer

• Carcinogenesis: mechanism in vitro and in vivo, oncogenes and antioncogenes Radiation induced cancer of occupational, medical or

military origin.

• Recent controversial results for low-level exposure, risk estimates

• Late effects of Radiation (Genetic)

• Mutations: definition, types, potential hazards.

• Low level radiation: sources, potential hazards, stochastic and deterministic nonstochastic effects, high background areas and cancer.

• Effects of Radiation on Human Embryo & Fetus

• Lethality, congenital abnormalities and late effects (Leukemia and childhood caner), severe mental retardation. Doses involved.

• Biology and Radiation Responses of Tumors

• Tumors growth: Kinetics of tumor response. Growth fraction, cell loss factor.

• Volume doubling times, potential volume doubling times, repopulation, and accelerated repopulation.

• Radio curability: definition, factors involved, tumor control probability curves

• Factors determining tumor regression rates. Causes of failure to control tumors by radiation: tumor related, host related technical/mechanical errors.

• Relationship between clonogen numbers and tumor control probability. Local tumor control and impact on survival.

• Applied Radiobiology

• Fractionation: rationate, factors involved (4 R’s)

• Time, Dose and fractionation relationship isoeffect curves, isoeffect relationships, e.g.; NSD, CRE formalisms and their limitations, partial tolerance, means of summating partial tolerance, steepness of dose response curves. Multi-target, two component and linear quadratic model. Alfa/ beta ratios for acute and late effects and means for deriving these values. Isoeffective formulae. Clinical applications of the L-Q model.

• Hyperfractionation, accelerated fractionation, hypofractionation, CHART, split dose treatments.

• Brachytherapy –low dose rate, high dose rate and pulsed treatments.

• Introduction to new techniques to optimize radio-curability; combination therapy (adjuvant surgery or chemotherapy), hyperthermia, hypoxic cell radio-sensitizers, high LET radiation. Photodynamic therapy.

• The volume effect, general principles and current hypotheses.

• Shrinking Field technique.

• Combination Radiation-surgery

• Pre, post and intra operative radiation.

• Rationale, radiobiological factors, current clinical results.

• Irradiation of sub-clinical disease, debulking surgery, importance of clonogen numbers.

• Combination Radiation-Chemotherapy

• Definitions of radiosensitiser and Radiation protectors, synergism, potentiation, antagonism, Radiosensitisers/Radiation protectors- types, and mechanism.

• Hyperthermia

• Sources, rationale (historical examples), advantages and disadvantages, thermotolerance.

• Cellular damage: comparison and contrast with radiation, thermal and non- thermal effects of ultrasound, microwaves, radiofrequency, etc. general host responses (immunology, metastases)

• Use along with radiotherapy and chemotherapy: optimum sequencing of combined modalities.

• Current limitations to the clinical use of hyperthermia.

• High LET Radiation

• Comparison and contrast with low LET radiation

• Neutrons: Source (including 252 Cf) and boron neutron capture (outline only). Advantages and disadvantages of neutrons, RBE values, hazards of low dose and low energy neutron, use in radiotherapy, combination with low LET, current clinical results.

• Other high LET particles: protons, mesons, high-energy heavy nuclei, application to radiotherapy, current clinical results.

7. CLINICAL RADIOTHERAPY

a. Cancer Epidemiology & Etiology

b. Cancer Statistics- world-wide & India

c. Cancer Registries, National cancer registry project of ICMR& National Cancer Control Programme

d. Analysis of data in cancer registries

e. Regional Cancer Centers

f. Cancer Screening & Prevention

g. Patient Care

h. Assessment & referral systems for radiotherapy

i. Diagnosis & workup

j. Staging

k. Care & evaluation during & after treatment

l. Emergencies in Oncology

m. Radiotherapeutic Management of different malignancies

n. Radiotherapy for nonmalignant conditions

o. Treatment Response & Result

p. Guidelines for treatment response assessment.

q. Complete Response, Partial Response, No response, Stable disease.

r. End points of treatment results. Loco-regional control recurrence, metastasis, survival quality of life.

s. Treatment related morbidity assessment

t. Radiation morbidity (early & late)

u. Morbidities of combined treatment

v. Grading of morbidity

w. Follow up methodologies of treated patients.

8. CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY

a. Basic Principles of chemotherapy

b. Chemotherapy drugs

c. Newer chemotherapeutic agents

d. Basic for designing different chemotherapy schedules. Standard chemotherapy schedules.

e. Chemotherapy practice in various malignancies

f. Chemotherapy practice & results/toxicities in sequential & concomitant chemoradiotherapy.

g. Supportive care for chemotherapy.

h. The basic principles underlying the use of chemotherapeutic agents.

i. Classification and mode of action of cytotoxic drugs. The principles of cell kill by chemotherapeutic agents, drug resistance, phase specific and cycle specific action.

j. Drug administration.

k. The general principles of pharmacokinetics; factors affecting drug concentration

l. ‘in vivo’ including route and timing of administration, drug activation, plasma concentration, metabolism and clearance.

m. Principles of combinations of therapy, dose response curves, adjuvant and neo- adjuvant chemotherapy, sanctuary sites, high dose chemotherapy, and regional chemotherapy.

n. Toxicity of drugs. Early, intermediate and late genetic and somatic effects of common classes of anticancer drugs.

o. Precautions in the safe handling of cytotoxic drugs.

p. Endocrine manipulation and biological response modifiers. An understanding of the mode of action and side effects of common hormonal preparations used in cancer therapy (including corticosteroids).

q. Use of the major biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins and growth factors and knowledge of their side effects.

r. Assessment of New Agents. Principles of phase I, II, and III studies.

s. Gene Therapy

t. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

u. Standard chemotherapy schedules

v. Drug administration and Precautions in the safe handling of cytotoxic drugs

w. Resistance to Chemotherapy

x. Basic concepts of Chemotherapy and Irradiation Interaction

9. Molecular and Genetic Oncology.

a. Cell cycle- DNA repair; apoptosis.

b. Invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis and lymph angiogenesis.

c. Cell signaling and interactive networks.

d. Immune response.

e. Gene Therapy

f. Somatic correction of gene defect

g. Genetic pro-drug activation

h. Genetic immunomodulation

10.Immunotherapy/Targeted Therapy

a. Monoclonal antibody therapy

b. Radio immunotherapy

c. Advances in immunotherapy

d. Nano-Particle therapy

11.Combination Radiation-Surgery

a. Pre, post and intra-operative radiation.

b. Rationale, radiobiological factors, current clinical results.

c. Irradiation of sub-clinical disease

d. Debulking surgery

e. Importance of clonogen numbers/Circulating tumor cells (CTC’s )

12.Combination Radiation –Chemotherapy

a. Definitions of radio sensitizers, synergism, potentiation, antagonism. Radiosenistzers/Radio protectors: type, mechanism of action.

13.Radio-active isotopes used for diagnosis and therapy

14.Benign diseases- Radiotherapy in non-malignant diseases

15.Imaging in oncology

16. Organ radio sensitivity and radio responsiveness, concept of therapeutic index

a. Acute effects of Radiation

• Concept of mean lethal dose

• Radiation syndromes: BM, GI, CNS, cutaneous

• Suppression of immune System: mechanism, consequences

• Total Body irradiation

• Biological dosimetry: Blood counts, BM mitotic index. Chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes

• Radiation accidents: typical examples

b. Radiation Effects on Major Organs/tissues

• Acute & late effects on all normal organs & tissue including connective tissue, bone marrow, bones, gonads, eye, skin, lung, heart, central nervous system tissues, peripheral nerves, esophagus, intestine, kidney, liver & thyroid with special reference to treatment induced sequelae after doses employed in radiotherapy.

Normal tissue tolerances.

c. Late effects of radiation (somatic)

• Sterility, cataracts and cancer

• Carcinogenesis: mechanisms in vitro and in vivo, oncogenes and antioncogenes.

• Radiation induces cancer of occupational, medical or military origin.

• Recent controversial results for low level exposure, risk estimates

d. Late Effects of Radiation (Genetic)

• Mutations: definition, types, potential hazards.

• Low level radiations: sources, potential hazards, stochastic and deterministic (nonstochastic) effects, high background areas and cancer.

• Effects of Radiation on Human Embryo & Fetus

• Lethality, congenital abnormalities and late effects (Leukemia and childhood cancer) severe mental retardation. Doses involved.

17.Palliative & supportive care:

a. Symptoms /Signs of advanced cancer

b. Palliation of compression and obstruction due to malignancy

c. Palliation of brain & spiral cord metastasis

d. Palliation of bleeding catastrophes

e. Palliation of bone metastasis

f. Palliation of visceral recurrences and metastases

g. Pain management: Pain control, WHO guidelines for adults & children

h. Patient’s and relatives’ counseling on end stage management

i. Guidelines for palliative care

j. Management of terminally ill patients.

k. Different pharmacologic & non-pharmacology methods

l. Palliative radiotherapy

m. Palliative chemotherapy

n. Home care

o. Hospice care

p. Physical, social, spiritual & other aspects

q. Others

OTHER DISCIPLINES ALLIED TO RADIOTHERAPY AND ONCOLOGY

18.Surgical Oncology

a. Basic principles of surgical oncology, biopsy, conservation surgery, radical surgery, palliative surgery.

b. Basics of surgical techniques – head & neck, breast, thorax, abdomen, gynecological, genitourinary, musculoskeletal, CNS.

c. Combined treatments: with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy.

19. Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

a. Radiographic diagnosis of malignant and non malignant conditions

b. Radiological Procedures with reference to Radiotherapy practices

c. Study of Ultrasound, CT Scans, MRI Scans, PET scans, as applicable for management of cancer.

d. Other nuclear imaging and therapeutic modalities as applicable to management of cancer.

PREVENTIVE & COMMUNITY ONCOLOGY

Cancer Epidemiology & Etiology

Cancer Statistics- worldwide & India

Cancer Registries & National Cancer Control Programme

Analysis of data in cancer registries

Regional Cancer Centers

Cancer Screening & Prevention

ADMINISTRATION

Oncologists role as an administrator.

How to set up a Radiotherapy and Oncology department, planning of

infrastructure, & equipments.

Role in National Cancer Control Programme (NCCP).

Responsibilities towards safety & quality assurance

20.Cancer Screening and Prevention

a. Cancer Biotherapeutics

• Hormonal Therapy

• Differentiation Agents

• Monoclonal Antibodies

• Interferons

• Interleukins

• Antiangiogenesis Agents

• Molecular Targeted Therapy

• Vaccines

• Gene Therapy

21.Clinical Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy in Management of Site Specific Malignancies Including

a. Metastasis of Unknown Origin

b. AIDS related Malignancies

c. Oncologic Emergencies

d. Paraneoplastic syndromes

e. Benign Diseases

Rehabilitation

Complementary alternative medicine

22. Quality Assurance in radiotherapy (QART)

a. Overview of ESTRO QART: Need for a quality system in Radiotherapy, Quality System:

b. Definition and practical advantages, Construction, Development and Implementation of a Quality System

c. Quality Assurance of Simulator, TPS, Co-60, linear accelerator

d. Acceptance testing of Simulator, TPS, Co-60, linear accelerator

e. Quality assurance and acceptance test of newer equipments.

23. New Radiation Modalities

a. Protons

• Production

• Process of absorption

• Depth dose patterns

• Advantages compared with x-rays

• Facilities available

b. Neutrons

• Production

• Process of absorption

• Depth dose patterns

• Advantages compared with x-rays

• Facilities available

c. Pions

• Production

• Process of absorption

• Depth dose patterns

• Advantages compared with x-rays

• Facilities available

d. High energy heavy ions (Carbon and others)

• Production

• Process of absorption

• Depth dose patterns

• Advantages compared with x-rays

• Facilities available

24. Hyperthermia

a. Sources, rationale (historical example), advantages and disadvantages, thermo tolerance.

b. Cellular damage: comparison and contrast with radiation, thermal and nonthermal effects of ultrasound, microwaves, radiofrequency, etc General host responses (immunology, metastases).

c. Use along with radiotherapy and chemotherapy: optimum sequencing of combined modalities. Current limitations to the clinical use of hyperthermia.

d. Methods of heating

• RF Microwaves

• Ultrasound

• Water baths

e. Systematic hyperthermia

f. Localized heating

g. Cellular response to heat

h. Repair of thermal damage

i. Thermotolerance

j. Hyperthermia combined with ionizing radiations

k. Time sequence of heat and irradiation

l. Hypoxic cells and heat

m. Effect of PH on the response to hyperthermia

n. Response of transplanted tumours to heat

o. Response of normal tissues to heat

p. Response of spontaneous tumours to heat

25.Modern Trends /Recent Advances

26.Advancements in Radiation Oncology:

Virtual Simulation: Principle, CT Simulation, TPS based virtual simulation,

Differences, Merits and Demerits, Practical considerations

27. Others:

a. Anti angio-genic factors , Angiogenesis & carcinogenesis

b. Monoclonal Antibodies – MABs & NIBs

c. Essentials of Genomics:

• Genomes,

• Signal translation

• Immunology

• Cytogenetic, cell cycle

• Apoptosis

• Invasion and metastasis

d. Gene Therapy

e. Molecular therapy,

f. Cancer vaccines.

g. others

28.STASTISTICAL BASIS FOR PLANNING AND INTERPRETATION OF

a. CLINICAL TRIALS

• Advantages & disadvantages

• Retrospective & Prospective studies

• Controlled & uncontrolled trials

• Single blind & double blind studies

• Phase I, II & III trials

• Ethics (Helsinki declaration/Good clinical practice)

b. PLANNING A TRIAL

• Establishing objectives – short term and long term

• Determining the appropriate criteria

• Establishing grounds for inclusion and exclusion of patients

• Determining how many treatment schedules are to be completed

• Determining the treatment schedules and any appropriate modifications

• Determining the method of allocation of treatment; the allocation ratio and the method and timing of randomization

• Determining what measures are to be taken, how they will be taken, who will take them, at what times (s) and where they will be recorded.

• Designing, the appropriate forms of documentation

• Determining the proposed duration of the trial, either in terms of a fixed closing date, or the entry of a predetermined number of patients.

• Establishing conditions under which the trial may be terminated earlier than planned & procedures for detecting these conditions.

• Re-assessing the proposed trial in terms of ethics, appropriateness to the short & long terms objectives, feasibility & the availability of resources.

• Writing the protocol

• Running a pilot study

29.TEACHING SCHEDULE

a. Basic clinical training should rest on day to day working in care of both in & out patients, day care chemotherapy, radiotherapy treatment planning (both manual & TPS) and execution, training in Quality assurance of therapeutic and allied equipments. The common tumors should be discussed at length in the teaching ward rounds. Each individual should present and discuss the respective case problems.

b. There should be intra and inter departmental meeting for discussion the Uncommon / interesting cancer cases.

c. In addition to above the following are suggested as some of the activities to

impart clinical training & skills:-

• Didactic teaching- once a week

• Subject seminars – once a week

• Case presentation – once a week

• Journal club – once a week

• Interdepartmental conferences- once a week

• In depth clinical presentation by individual – minimum desirable of at least 15 session per year.

d. Attending various accredited scientific meeting – CME/Symposia/conference- 30 hours.

e. Training in patients’ record keeping, hospital based and city tumor registry system, cancer notification and WHO recommendations on improving follow up.

f. Research Training

Collection of information related to advances in medicine from various sources (use of library, multimedia, internet etc.) their interpolation and application.

g. Teaching

• Undergraduate clinical demonstration of minimum 3 sessions

• Demonstration and teaching for nursing students.

• Patient /Public education talks and preparation of multi-media presentation, material, articles, lectures, pamphlets & books.

30.POSTGRADUATE TRAINING

a. Standard Requisite

b. Teaching

c. Administration

a. Standard Requisite

• Basic Sciences

• Clinical Sciences

• Research

 Basic Sciences: Minimum undergraduate level training in anatomy, physiology, biochemistry microbiology, pathology & pharmacology relevant in clinical practice, in addition to specific emphasis on basic genetic and molecular biology related to tumor and clinical oncology.

 Clinical Sciences:

(Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy and related discipline): Theoretical background including recent advances is prerequisite for clinical training of PG’s –

 Become competent in taking patient’s history of illness and able to identify Possible etiological/predisposing factors.

 Should develop skills to interpret and elicit various physical signs and to arrive at a probable diagnosis and to decide on cost effective diagnostic procedures.

 Carryout usual clinical interventions in the management of oncology patients like FNAC, pleural aspiration, abdominal paracentesis, bone marrow aspiration, Central venous lines and biopsy etc.

 Acquainted with basic methodological & interpretation of various diagnostic tests and procedures.

 Seminars, symposia, reviews, ward round & post graduate interactive group discussion should constitute methodology of their training.

 Able to provide palliative and terminal care for cancer patients.

 Research: : A post graduate student pursuing the specialty of

radiotherapy-

 Should have knowledge of the basic scientific methodology, statistical basis and cancer epidemiology

 Should be able to devise, prepare and carry out research project ‘ individually’.

 Should be able to decide the relevance of any study/analysis on the subject

 Should develop a skill to present data in the form of research paper at conference / symposia/CME etc.

 Should know the basic concepts of Indexing and international classification of disease, tumor registry systems, department tumor registry. The student should also know about the UICC,IACR system for Methodology of follow up and patient retrieval system that forms the foundation of clinical research follow up based expertise.

b. Teaching

• Should be well versed with method of teaching using audio-visual aids

• Should be able to conduct demonstration and teaching for under graduate students

• Should be able to collect, compile and present the material and data for scientific and public lectures pertaining to radiotherapy and oncology.

c. Administration

A post graduate student should be involved in managing the day to day affairs related to patient treatment, care, academics, and research. The trainee must have knowledge of planning and setting up an oncology department, interaction with government machinery and other agencies, experience of National Cancer Control Programme.ets of training, academic, patient care & research.

31.SCOPE OF TRAINING

a. Clinical Training

b. Clinical Procedures

c. Research Training

d. Teaching

• Clinical Training

 Posting

 Major tenure of posting should include care of inpatients, out patients, day care, isolation, special clinics, terminally ill patients and maintenance of case records for both in & out patients

 Linear Accelerator

 Simulator

 CT simulator

 Brachytherapy LDR/MDR/HDR/PDR

 Computerized TPS

 Mould room

 Medical physics lab

 Others

 Following support department posting is also desirable: –

 Pathology

 Radio diagnosis

 Nuclear Machine

 Gynecology, GI surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Neurosurgery and Pulmonary Medicine.

 Molecular Oncology and genetics

32.CLINICAL POSTINGS

a. Rotations Postings

• 1st Year

 Clinical Oncology (In-patient ward and special clinics)

 Radiation Physics

 Pathology and Radiation Pathology, Cell biology and Radiobiology

 Diagnostic Radiology

 Cancer Epidemiology and Statistics

 Cancer Research and Laboratory methods

• 2nd Year

 Clinical Oncology & Critical Care (In–patient ward & special clinics)

 Radiation Physics

 Palliative Care

 Medical Oncology including Haemato-oncology

 Targeted /Biological Therapies

 (In-patient ward and special clinics)

 Mould room and Immobilization devices

 Simulator and Teletherapy machine posting

 Brachytherapy

• 3rd Year

 Radiation Oncology (Inpatient ward and special clinics)

 Clinico pathological meetings / morbidity and mortality and medical audits

 Recent Advances

 Peer reviewed /Indexed journal based studies

33.BIOSTATISTICS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

a. Sampling –Random sampling, purposive sampling, advantages of sampling, various methods of sampling (Simple random, systemic, stratified, cluster, multistage and multiphase), sampling error, on-sampling error.

b. Descriptive statistics -Arithmetic mean, Median, Mode and standard error, coefficient of variation.

c. Graphics presentation of date -Bar diagram, histogram frequency curve, line graph, pie chart

d. Normal distribution -Definition and properties /Confidence interval, Basic concept of testing of hypothesis, p-value, power of the test.

e. Test of significance-t test, test of proportion, chi-square test, concept of analysis of variance

f. Study design – Descriptive studies, analytical studies. Observational studies, experimental studies, prospective studies, retrospective studies, odds ration, relative risk, attributable risk percent, population attributable risk percent.

g. Correlation and regression -Simple correlation, linear regression, concept of multiple regression.

h. Survival analysis -Life table, survival analysis, K-M Methos, Cox regression, log ran K test

i. Sample size determination -Basic concept, sample size determination of estimating proportion and mean

j. Clinical trials in cancer research –Basic concept

34.Biostatistics, Research Methodology and Clinical Epidemiology

35.Ethics

36.Medico legal aspects relevant to the discipline

37. Health Policy issues as may be applicable to the discipline

Career Options

After
completing a DNB in Radiation Oncology,
candidates will get employment opportunities in Government as well as in the
Private sector.

In the Government sector, candidates have various options to
choose from, including Registrar, Senior Resident, Demonstrator, Tutor, etc.

While in the Private sector the
options include Resident Doctor, Consultant, Visiting Consultant (Radiation Oncology), Junior Consultant, Senior
Consultant (Radiation Oncology), Consultant Radiation
Oncology Specialist, etc.

Courses
After DNB in Radiation Oncology Course

DNB in Radiation Oncology is a specialization course that can be pursued after
finishing MBBS. After pursuing a specialization in DNB (Radiation Oncology), a candidate could also pursue super
specialization courses recognized by NMC, where DNB (Radiation Oncology) is a feeder qualification.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) – DNB in Radiation Oncology Course

Question: What is a DNB in Radiation Oncology?

Answer: DNB Radiation Oncology or
Diplomate of National Board in Radiation Oncology also known as DNB in Radiation
Oncology is a Postgraduate level
course for doctors in India that is done by them after completion of their
MBBS.

Question: Is DNB in Radiation Oncology equivalent to MD in Radiation
Oncology?

Answer: DNB in Radiation Oncology is equivalent to MD in Radiation
Oncology, the list of recognized
qualifications awarded by NBE in various broad and super specialties as
approved by the Government of India are included in the first schedule of the
Indian Medical Council Act, 1956.

Question: What is the duration of a DNB in Radiation Oncology?

Answer: DNB in Radiation Oncology is a
postgraduate programme of three years.

Question: What is the eligibility of a DNB in Radiation Oncology?

Answer: Candidates must be in possession of an undergraduate
MBBS degree from any college/university recognized by the Medical Council of
India (now NMC).

Question: What is the scope of a DNB in Radiation Oncology?

Answer: DNB in Radiation
Oncology offers candidates various employment opportunities and career
prospects.

Question: What is the average salary for an DNB in Radiation Oncology postgraduate
candidate?

Answer: The DNB in Radiation Oncology candidate’s average salary is between Rs. 8 Lakh to Rs. 24 Lakh per year depending on
the experience.

Question: Are DNB Radiation Oncology and MD Radiation
Oncology equivalent for pursuing teaching jobs?

Answer: The Diplomate of National Board in broad-speciality
qualifications and super speciality qualifications when granted in a medical
institution with attached hospital or in a hospital with the strength of five
hundred or more beds, by the National Board of Examinations, shall be
equivalent in all respects to the corresponding postgraduate qualification and
the super-speciality qualification granted under the Act, but in all other cases,
senior residency in a medical college for an additional period of one year
shall be required for such qualification to be equivalent for the purposes of
teaching also.

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