Cessation of smoking may reduce visual field progression among heavy smokers with glaucoma

Long-term cessation of smoking may reduce visual field (VF) progression in
former heavy smokers suffering with glaucoma, suggests a recent study published in the Journal of

The earlier a person quits smoking the more likely the
optic nerve be spared from damage.

A study was conducted to investigate the effect of smoking
cessation on visual field (VF) progression in glaucoma.

Primary open-angle glaucoma patients with a minimum of 3
years follow-up and 5 VFs were included. Linear mixed models were used to
investigate the effects of smoking on the rates of 24-2 VF mean deviation loss
after adjusting for confounding factors. Cox proportional hazard regression was
used to identify whether different levels of smoking intensity were associated
with VF progression with respect to different duration of quitting.


  • Five hundred eleven eyes of 354 patients were
    included over the mean follow-up of 12.4 years. Mean baseline age (95%
    confidence interval) was 62.3 (61.2, 63.4) years.
  • One hundred forty-nine (42.1%) patients were
    smokers. In a multivariable model, smoking intensity was associated with faster
    VF loss among smokers.
  • Heavy smokers (≥20 pack-years) who had quit ˂25
    years prior had significantly greater odds of VF progression compared with
    never smokers
  • There was no significant difference in odds of
    VF progression in heavy smokers who had quit smoking more than 25 years
    compared with never smokers
  • A significantly higher proportion of VF
    progression was found in heavy smokers who quit < 25 years compared with
    heavy smokers who quit ≥25 years by Kaplan-Meier analysis

After ≥25 years of smoking cessation, the risk of VF
progression in former heavy smokers becomes similar to never smokers. Long-term
smoking cessation may be associated with lower VF progression in glaucoma


Mahmoudinezhad, Golnoush MD, MPH*; Nishida, Takashi MD,
PhD*; Weinreb, Robert N. MD*; Baxter, Sally L. MD, MSc, MD*,†; Walker, Evan
MSc*; Eslani, Medi MD*; Liebmann, Jeffrey M. MD‡; Girkin, Christopher A. MD,
MSPH§; Moghimi, Sasan MD*. Smoking Cessation May Reduce Risk of Visual Field
Progression in Heavy Smokers. Journal of Glaucoma: October 2022 – Volume 31 –
Issue 10 – p 796-803 doi: 10.1097/IJG.0000000000002092

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